Dementia is a loss of brain function that occurs with certain diseases.
*Changed feeling (sensation) or perception
*Changed sleep patterns
*Change in sleep-wake cycle
*Need for increased sleep
*Decrease in problem-solving skills and judgment
*Confused about people, places, or times
*Unable to pick up cues from the environment
*Disorders of problem-solving or learning
*Trouble making calculations
*Unable to learn
*Unable to think abstractly
*Unable to think in general terms
* Impaired recognition (agnosia)
*Trouble recognizing familiar objects or people
*Trouble recognizing things through the senses
* Lack of or poor language ability (aphasia)
*Unable to form words
*Unable to name objects
*Unable to read or write
*Unable to repeat a phrase
*Unable to speak (without muscle paralysis)
*Unable to understand speech
*Have impaired language skills
*Speak poorly (enunciation)
*Use slang or the wrong words
*Unable to remember new things (short-term memory problems)
*Unable to remember the past (long-term memory problems)
*Motor system problems
*Impaired skilled motor function (apraxia)
*Unable to copy geometric figures
*Unable to copy hand positions
*Unable to dress self ~ and lack of desire to bathe, brush teeth and the ability to live with those smells and without regard to those around them.
*Other motor system problems
* Seeing or hearing things that aren’t there (hallucinations) and having false ideas (delusions)
*Decreased ability to care for oneself
*Decreased interest in daily living activities ~ often accompanied by frequent “woe is me I’d be better off dead” drama scenes
*Inappropriate mood or behavior ~ such as blurting out whatever they may be thinking without censure, often creating ambivalence in those around them.
*No mood (flat affect)
*Only concerned with self (self-centered)
*Poor temper control
*Unable to function or interact in social or personal situations
*Unable to keep a job
*Unable to make decisions
*Withdrawal from social interaction
*Unable to be spontaneous
*Unable to concentrate
Other symptoms that may occur with dementia:
* Swallowing problems
Stopping or changing medications that make confusion worse may improve brain function. Medicines that contribute to confusion include:
* Central nervous system depressants
* Painkillers (analgesics)
Treating conditions that can lead to confusion can often greatly improve mental functioning. Such conditions include:
* Decreased oxygen (hypoxia)
* Heart failure
* Nutritional disorders
* Thyroid disorders
Medications may be needed to control behavior problems. Possible medications include:
* Cholinesterase inhibitors (donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine) for Alzheimer’s-type dementia
* Dopamine blockers (haloperidol, risperdal, olanzapine, clozapine)
* Mood stabilizers (fluoxetine, imipramine, citalopram)
* Serotonin-affecting drugs (trazodone, buspirone)
* Stimulants (methylphenidate)
A person’s eyes and ears should be checked regularly. Hearing aids, glasses, or cataract surgery may be needed.
Psychotherapy or group therapy usually does not help because it may cause more confusion.
A person with dementia may need monitoring and help at home or in an institution. Possible options include:
* Adult day care
* Boarding homes
* Convalescent homes
* In-home care
Family members can get help caring for the person with dementia from:
* Adult protective services
* Community resources
* Visiting nurses or aides
* Volunteer services
In some communities, support groups may be available (see elder care – support group). Family counseling can help family members cope with home care.
Other tips for reducing disorientation:
* Have familiar objects and people around
* Keep lights on at night
* Provide environmental and other cues with reality orientation
* Reward appropriate behaviors and ignore inappropriate ones to control unacceptable or dangerous behaviors
* Stick to a simple activity schedule
The two major causes of non-reversible (degenerative) dementia are:
- Alzheimer’s disease ~ Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of dementia. Dementia is a term that is used to describe a group of brain disorders. These brain disorders cause memory loss and make it harder to carry out daily tasks. Alzheimer’s disease develops slowly over time. The symptoms begin to appear so gradually that it is often mistaken for normal aging.
- Loss of brain function due to a series of small strokes (vascular dementia)
The two conditions often occur together.
The structures and symptoms of DLB are similar to those of Alzheimer’s disease, but it is not clear whether DLB is a form of Alzheimer’s or a separate disease. There is no cure for DLB or Alzheimer’s.
Conditions that damage blood vessels or nerve structures of the brain can also lead to dementia.
Treatable causes of dementia include:
* Brain tumors
* Dementia due to metabolic causes
* Low vitamin B12 levels
* Normal pressure hydrocephalus
* Thyroid conditions
Tests & diagnosis
The following tests and procedures may be done:
* B12 level
* Blood ammonia levels
* Blood chemistry (chem-20)
* Blood gas analysis
* Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis
* Drug or alcohol levels (toxicology screen)
* Electroencephalograph (EEG)
* Glucose test
* Head CT
* Liver function tests
* Mental status test
* MRI of head
* Serum calcium
* Serum electrolytes
* Thyroid function tests
* Thyroid stimulating hormone level
Prognosis ~ Dementia usually gets worse and often decreases quality of life and lifespan.
Prevention ~ Most causes of dementia are not preventable.
* Abuse by an overstressed caregiver
* Increased infections anywhere in the body
* Loss of ability to function or care for self
* Loss of ability to interact
* Reduced life span
* Side effects of medications used to treat the disorder
When to contact a doctor:
* Call your health care provider if dementia develops or a sudden change in mental status occurs.
* Call your health care provider if the condition of a person with dementia gets worse.
* Call your health care provider if you are unable to care for a person with dementia at home.